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"Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions", Richard M. Ryan and Edward L. Deci

Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educa- tional practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motiva- tion remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, compe- tence and relatedness are discussed. (click below to see article)


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